Indigenous Music from Wounded Knee to the Billboard Charts

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Essential Question

In what ways did the music of Native Americans mark them as outsiders from the developing narratives of “American-ness” in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and how did the federal government attempt to use music as a tool to force assimilation?

Overview

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In this lesson, students are introduced first to Pat Vegas and Redbone by way of interviews and music from RUMBLE. They then look back to the late 19th century to consider the significance of Redbone’s success. Students will use clips from the film, as well as a set of seven source documents to assess the U.S. government’s attempt to control Native American populations by way of culture, particularly music. The documents, which include letters, acts of Congress, testimony, and newspaper articles, introduce students to legislation and the Federal Indian Boarding School system from the perspectives of both government agents and Native Americans. Additionally, students analyze three poems that speak to the trauma Native Americans have experienced due to such governmental policies.

To a present-day listener with no additional context, Redbone’s single “Come and Get Your Love” may just sound like a classic mid-70s Rock tune. The song, which many might recognize from the opening sequence of the film Guardians of the Galaxy, is marked by a tight and funky drumbeat, as were many in that post-James Brown and Sly and the Family Stone moment. It’s harmony is punctuated by a punchy, dry bass line that contrasts with lush, rather deep-in-the-mix string overdubs. The sparse, repeated lyrics are not what many would call “deep.” “Come and Get Your Love,” however, is in many ways a breakthrough track.

When “Come and Get Your Love” broke the Billboard Top 5 singles in 1974, and when the track went “Gold,” meaning it sold at least half a million copies, it marked the first time an outwardly Native American ensemble had reached such heights.

Pat and Lolly Vegas, the Yaqui, Shoshone, and Mexican American brothers who founded Redbone in 1969, hadn’t always been “outwardly” Native American in performance. In the early 1960s, the brothers began their professional careers playing “Surf” music in Los Angeles. They recognized that their family surname, “Vasquez,” would mark them as Mexican-American and limit their potential. So, the Vegas brothers were born. However, as national attitudes toward identity and ethnicity began to evolve later in the decade, the Vegas brothers decided to take the advice of part-Cherokee friend Jimi Hendrix and, as Pat Vegas puts it, “do the Indian thing.” Redbone performed in Native American clothing, and also worked traditional drum, dance, and song into performances, even on TV.

Redbone’s success came less than a century after the U.S. government banned traditional expressions of Native American song and dance, and 84 years after the Massacre at Wounded Knee, where U.S. forces murdered between two- and three-hundred Lakota men, women, and children, ostensibly because they refused to cease performing a pan-tribal ritual known as the “Ghost Dance.”

 

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Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, students will:

  1. Know (knowledge):
    • The history of the Massacre at Wounded Knee from several perspectives
    • About the Dawes Act
    • About the Carlisle Indian Boarding School and Federal Indian schools of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
    • Firsthand accounts of students’ experiences at Federal Indian Schools
    • About Col. Richard Pratt and the movement to “civilize” Native Americans during the period
    • About mainstream white feelings toward to the music culture of Native Americans
    • About Pat and Lolly Vegas (Vasquez) and their band Redbone
    • How the trauma of those acts continues to affect the lives of Indigenous People today by examining poetry written by Native Americans
  2. Mastery Objective:
    • Through analysis of source documents, students will be able to discuss how attitudes toward Native American culture impacted the events at Wounded Knee, and apply their historical perspective to interpret the success of Native American popular music later in the 20th century.

Activities

Motivational Activity:

  1. Ask students:
    • Can you think of any times music feels like more than entertainment to you? When it might say something about who you are? (Encourage students to think of how music functions in rituals from religion, to “The Star-Spangled Banner,” to the singing of “Happy Birthday.” Also have students consider how music plays a role in shaping identity, e.g. “I’m a metalhead.”)

Procedure:

  1. Tell your students that they will now watch a clip featuring Pat Vegas, a Yaqui, Shoshone, and Mexican American musician whose band Redbone became the first Native American group to have a Gold (more than half-a-million sold) record in 1974. Show Clip 1, “‘Do the Indian Thing.’” Ask students: 
    • What do you think Jimi Hendrix meant when he told Pat Vegas to “do the Indian thing”? Why do you think Pat Vegas might have chosen to downplay or hide his heritage before Redbone?
    • What do you think David Fricke might mean when he says, “ultimately, getting through is the best revenge?” In what ways did Redbone “get through”?
  2. Have students make a T-chart on which each side represents one of the Redbone performances (the “traditional” and the Rock and Roll) in Clip 1. Play Clip 1a , “Redbone Chant,” and then play Clip 1b, “Come and Get Your Love,” and have students record their answers to the following questions on the T-Chart for each performance, then discuss their answers as a class:
    • What instruments are being used?
    • How would you describe the singing?
    • How would you describe the dancing?
    • Do you notice any similarities between the two clips?
  3. Show Clip 2, “The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee,” and ask students:
    • Why do you think Native American music was seen as “dangerous” and a “threat” by U.S. officials? What power do you think they might have believed Native American music had? (Encourage students to consider the power music has to create a collective identity, how many Native Americans could say “our music” as a way of being apart from the white power structure, and what collective tribal identity might have represented to those who wished to control the tribes.)
    • In this clip, John Trudell suggests that the government agents wished to completely erase Native American culture, so “of course they came after our music.” Why do you think he feels so sure that controlling music was a way for the government to control the people? (Among many things, encourage students to explore the idea that many songs were “songs of ancestors” and parts of oral history; ending the songs could destroy the connections to history.)
    • How do you think an event such as the Massacre at Wounded Knee might impact the practice of traditional song and dance among other  tribes in what is today the United States?
  4. Tell students they will now respond to a Document Based Question using seven source documents from the period of Wounded Knee. These documents are found in four handouts: 
  5. These documents could be assigned as an in-class group project, as an in-class individual project, or as a homework assignment. The documents could also be used to guide a document-based class discussion guided by the following question:
    • To what extent did the U.S. government seek to use culture to control Native Americans in the late 19th century? Using examples from the documents, characterize the philosophical underpinnings of these measures, i.e., were they “for good,” or callous, etc? In what ways do you think these measures contributed to the Massacre at Wounded Knee? Why?
  6. Tell students that the cruel and discriminatory policies that banned cultural and spiritual expressions of Native life and that removed Native Children from their tribal homes to send them to faraway boarding schools have resulted in deep trauma among Indigenous People in what is today the United States. Pass out Handout 5 – Three Poems by Indigenous Writers. Ask students to read each of the poems in groups individually, or aloud as a class. Then ask students:
    • What is similar about these three poems?
    • Each poem offers a different perspective. What sort of character is speaking in each poem? What is their relationship with the Indian School?
    • What imagery is used to describe indigenous culture in the three poems? What imagery is used to describe white “western” culture?
    • How is repetition used in the poems? What effect might it have?
    • In what ways might these three poems speak to how Native Americans experienced trauma in these Indian Schools?

Summary Activity:

  1. Ask students:
    • Considering what you know now about responses to Native American music in the United States, how would you assess the significance of the Redbone clip that began this lesson?
    • Can you think of any other elements of culture that have moved from a marginal or forbidden position within society to one of acceptance? Can you think of anything that is currently marginal which you believe will someday be accepted?

Extension Activity:

  1. The seven documents included in this lesson demonstrate a concerted effort on the part of the U.S. government to attempt to “civilize” Native Americans by forcing them to adopt a Euro-centric approach to all facets of life. In a short essay, use the included documents, and external resources if necessary, to explore other facets of Native American life that the U.S. government attempted to change with legislation and intervention.

Standards

Common Core State Standards

College and Career Readiness Reading Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 for Literature and Informational Text

  • Reading 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text
  • Reading 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
  • Craft and Structure 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
  • Craft and Structure 6: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
  • Reading 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words
  • Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 9: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
  • Reading 10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening for Grades 6-12

  • Speaking and Listening 1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively
  • Speaking and Listening 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally
  • Speaking and Listening 3: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric
  • Speaking and Listening 4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
  • Speaking and Listening 5: Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations
  • Speaking and Listening 6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language for Grades 6-12

  • Language 1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking
  • Language 3: Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening
  • Language 4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate
  • Language 5: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings
  • Language 6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression

National Core Arts Standards

Responding

  • Anchor Standard 7: Perceive and analyze artistic work.
  • Anchor Standard 8: Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
  • Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.

Connecting

  • Anchor Standard 10: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.
  • Anchor Standards 11: Relate artistic ideas and work with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.

Career Technical Education Standards (California Model) – Arts, Media and Entertainment Pathway Standards

Design, Visual and Media Arts (A)

  • A1.0 Demonstrate ability to reorganize and integrate visual art elements across digital media and design applications.
    A1.1 View and respond to a variety of industry-related artistic products integrating industry appropriate vocabulary.
    A1.4 Select industry-specific works and analyze the intent of the work and the appropriate use of media.
    A1.5 Research and analyze the work of an artist or designer and how the artist’s distinctive style contributes to their industry production.
    A1.9 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work. ia, and Entertainment |
    A3.0 Analyze and assess the impact of history and culture on the development of professional arts and media products.
    A3.2 Describe how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence and are reflected in a variety of artistic products.
    A3.3 Identify contemporary styles and discuss the diverse social, economic, and political developments reflected in art work in an industry setting.
    A3.4 Identify art in international industry and discuss ways in which the work reflects cultural perspective.
    A3.5 Analyze similarities and differences of purpose in art created in culturally diverse industry applications.
    A4.0 Analyze, assess, and identify effectiveness of artistic products based on elements of art, the principles of design, and professional industry standards.
    A4.2 Deconstruct how beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence commercial media (traditional and electronic).
    A4.5 Analyze and articulate how society influences the interpretation and effectiveness of an artistic product.
    A5.0 Identify essential industry competencies, explore commercial applications and develop a career specific personal plan.
    A5.1 Compare and contrast the ways in which different artistic media (television, newspapers, magazines, and electronic media) cover the same commercial content.
    A5.3 Deconstruct works of art, identifying psychological content found in the symbols and images and their relationship to industry and society.

Performing Arts (B)

  • B1.0 Explore and formulate responses to peer and professional work using the fundamental elements of Theater, Dance, and Music.
    B1.1 Demonstrate movement skills, process sensory information, and describe movement using the professional vocabulary of dance
    B2.0 Read, listen to, deconstruct, and analyze peer and professional music using the elements and terminology of music.
    B2.2 Describe how the elements of music are used.
    B2.5 Analyze and describe significant musical events perceived and remembered in a given industry generated example.
    B2.6 Analyze and describe the use of musical elements in a given professional work that makes it unique, interesting, and expressive.
    B2.7 Demonstrate the different uses of form, both past and present, in a varied repertoire of music in commercial settings from diverse genres, styles, and professional applications.
    B7.0 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of multiple industry performance products from a discipline-specific perspective.
    B7.1 Identify and compare how film, theater, television, and electronic media productions influence values and behaviors.
    B7.3 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the musician in the professional setting.
    B7.4 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the actor and performance artist in the professional setting.
    B8.0 Deconstruct the aesthetic values that drive professional performance and the artistic elements necessary for industry production.
    B8.1 Critique discipline-specific professional works using the language and terminology specific to the discipline.
    B8.2 Use selected criteria to compare, contrast, and assess various professional performance forms.
    B8.3 Analyze the aesthetic principles that apply in a professional work designed for live performance, film, video, or live broadcast.
    B8.4 Use complex evaluation criteria and terminology to compare and contrast a variety of genres of professional performance products.