How did changes in the technology of record manufacturing effect popular music, radio, and the people who consumed both?
The earliest recordings made with Thomas Edison’s phonograph in 1877 required no electricity. To record, musicians directed their performances into a large, funnel-shaped horn. The narrow end of this horn was attached to a needle that recorded the sound vibration by cutting a groove into a wax cylinder as it was rotated by turning a crank. To play the sound captured on that wax cylinder, this process was reversed.
Though the improvements to this process have been many, the basic concept of making “records” in the pre-digital era continued to involve capturing sound in the form of indentations on a material surface. What did change over the course of time was the surface on which records were made.
Wax cylinders were replaced by flat shellac discs. Shellac however was hard, heavy, and, worse, breakable. Vinyl, the more flexible compound still used for records today, was introduced in the 1930s.
With the introduction of vinyl, fierce competition within the recording industry led to two closely timed technological advances in the late 1940s. First, in 1948, Columbia Records introduced the “Long Player,” a 12-inch record that rotated at 33 ⅓ rpm and held almost three times as much music as previous records, roughly 18 minutes per side. The following year, Columbia’s main competitor, RCA Victor, released a new 45 rpm 7-inch record. Though it held only 4 minutes per side, RCA also promoted their new, small and portable playback system that automatically switched between records that the user could stack on its spool. Though this 45 rpm 7-inch, which became known as the “single,” and the 12-inch “LP” were initially marketed as direct competitors, the different records led to different uses. Teenagers in particular were drawn to the 45 rpm record. Many among the teen demographic listened to “Top 40” radio, on which they could hear their favorite songs in regular rotation. With RCA’s record player, teens could be just like their favorite DJs, playing individual songs by different artists one after the next. The LP would find its natural radio format some years later, with the rise of FM radio and with a somewhat older audience, and by the late 1960s, the LP was the format most recording artists had in mind when they entered the studio. Some artists would go so far as to not release singles at all.
New technologies prosper only when they become meaningful to users. The stories of how the single and the LP became meaningful in different ways in American music culture provides a unique glimpse of American life in the mid-20th century. This lesson explores the technology of “records” and what it meant to the people who consumed them. Students will learn how a record works and why a needle on a disc can record and play back music. Moreover, students will investigate how these technological changes had far reaching effects, even in the domestic setting. Finally, this lesson follows the 45 rpm and LP record through the airwaves of both AM and FM radio, using excerpts of broadcasts by the pioneering DJs Alan Freed and Tom Donahue and investigating how the possibilities and limitations of each medium and their respective places on the radio dial provide a framework for historical analysis.
Upon completion of this lesson, students will:
- Know (knowledge):
- About Thomas Edison and the invention of sound recording
- How a vinyl record stores audio information
- How the emerging youth culture of the 1950s can be understood in relation to technological advancements in record and record player production
- About the inventions of AM and FM radio broadcasting, how the technologies differ, and how these differences affected American music culture
- How FCC regulations created space for the emergence of FM radio
- About the pioneering DJs of AM and FM radio, and their roles in American youth culture
- How trends in the formats of recordings and radio broadcasting reflect concurrent changes of broader American culture
- Be able to (skills):
- Evaluate the effects of technology on history and culture
- Interpret and discuss the meaning of a variety of primary source materials, including radio broadcasts and print material
- Read, listen to, and watch a variety of sources to gather information and draw historical and thematic connections
- Analyze content from historical materials to arrive at a better understanding of the past
- Understand connections between popular culture and the time, place and social circumstances in which it was created
Ask your students:
- How do you listen to music? (Students will likely suggest their phones and computers. Also encourage them to think about whether they use speakers or headphones.)
- How do you think your parents listened to music when they were your age?
- Do you own any “physical” music releases such as CDs, cassettes or records? If so, where do you listen to them? Do you relate to these recordings differently than you do to the Mp3s or music that you stream?
- Play Clip 1, Soundbreaking – The 78 rpm Record and ask your students:
- How do you think music is stored in the grooves on records?
- Why do you think this type of record was called a 78? (Students should note that “rpm” is an abbreviation of “rotations per minute.”)
- Distribute Handout 1: How Records Work and read it out loud as a class. Ask your students:
- Why does a record that spins slower allow for longer playing time?
- What advantages might a “long playing” record have?
- Can you think of any reasons people would want to purchase a short, 45 record?
- Play Clip 2, Soundbreaking – The 45 and ask your students:
- In this Soundbreaking clip, Steven Van Zandt mentions that the portable 45 player that a “kid could take into his room” was a significant development. In what ways do you think this might have changed the way young people listened to music? (Students should note that this was a level of privacy previously unattainable. Young people and their friends could now listen and dance to music in their own private spaces.)
- Why do you think that George Martin suggests that the louder a Rock and Roll song was the better it would sell?
- Display the following two images (Slides 1 & 2: Westinghouse Record Player advertisements, 1940s). Ask your students:
- What family members are present in each advertisement?
- What room of the house do you think the people are in in each advertisement?
- Do you think it would be easy to move this record player, or bring it to a friend’s house?
- Now display the following two slides (Slides 3 & 4, College 45s Ad and Philips 45 Player advertisement). Ask your students:
- What family members are present in these advertisements?
- Do you think the absence of parents is significant? What might it suggest to young people? Is there any music in your life that you enjoy but your parents do not?
- How is the size of the record player represented in these advertisements?
- In what ways do you think the size of the 45 rpm record player might have been attractive to young people?
- To encourage your students to consider the difference in music consumption between 1960 and the present, make a T-Chart on the board with one side representing the present, and the other representing the year 1960. Ask your students the following questions, keeping track of their answers on the board:
- On what devices do you listen to music? On what devices do you think people listened to music in 1960 (Students might answer that in 1960 people listened to music on the radio and on record players.)
- How much music can you access on your device(s)? How much music could a person access on their device in 1960?
- How do you discover the music you listen to? How do you think people discovered new music in 1960? (Students might answer that in 1960 people discovered new music from the radio and television, but remind students that people have always discovered music from each other.)
- Once you discover what you’d like to hear, do you buy it? If so, how and in what form? How do you think people did this in 1960? (Students will likely mention the radio, but remind them that people went to physical record stores and bought their music as well.)
- Overall, how do you think the differences in the way the 45 rpm generation and your generation listen to and discover music affects the way you experience music?
- Play Clip 3, Soundbreaking – AM Radio and the Hit Single ask your students:
- Why do you think radio was such a powerful force in the 1950s and 1960s?
- What do you think might have drawn young people to a particular radio station or show at this time? (Encourage your students to consider the power of a DJ to function as a tastemaker.)
- Distribute Handout 2: AM Radio and Alan Freed and read it out loud as a class.
- Now play Clip 4, Excerpt from Alan Freed’s March 23, 1955 “King of the Moondoggers” radio show. Have students take notes using the following guidelines:
- Make a timeline that indicates how much time is spent on each: music, advertising, and dedications
- How would you describe Freed’s pace?
- What age group do you think this show was directed toward? Why?
- In what ways do you think that the record format of the 45 was well suited for a show like Freed’s?
- In what ways do you think a show like Freed’s could help sell 45s?
- Play Clip 5, Soundbreaking – Bob Dylan and the Transition to FM Radio ask your students:
- In what ways does this clip suggest that Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone” broke with established AM radio formatting?
- Do you think “Like a Rolling Stone” would have fit into Alan Freed’s broadcast?
- In what ways does this clip suggest that the lyrics of “Like a Rolling Stone” might have presented new possibilities for both artists and DJs?
- Distribute Handout 3: FM Radio and the Long Playing Album and read it as a class. Ask your students:
- What about FM radio do you think might have made it an ideal space for “free form” broadcasting after the end of simulcasting in the late 1960s? (Students should note that it was largely a blank slate with no clearly established rules or formats, a sort of “Wild West” open to experimentation.)
- Though it was initially an AM hit, in what ways do you think Bob Dylan’s success with “Like A Rolling Stone” might have inspired subsequent “freeform” stations on FM? (Students should note that the song’s popularity, despite its extended length, suggested that people were open to alternative formatting.)
- How does Murray the K suggest that FM programming reflected a “matured” or “grown up” form of Rock and Roll?
- How does Murray the K suggest that this more “mature” Rock and Roll changes the role of the DJ?
- Now play Clip 6, an excerpt of pioneering FM DJ Tom Donahue’s 1969, KSAN radio program. Have your students pay attention to his discussion of the music he’s just played and his overall style of delivery and ask:
- How would you contrast Donahue’s verbal delivery with what you have heard from Alan Freed?
- What does Donahue say he’s just played on his show? How does that contrast with what we heard of Freed? (Students should observe that Donahue names at least two songs, so he’s returning from a stretch of at least 8 straight minutes of music.)
- In what ways do you think Donahue’s demeanor reflects Murray the K’s statements in Handout 3 that, “You didn’t have to hype the record anymore. The music was speaking for itself”?
Discuss with your students:
- When you listen to your favorite artists, do you listen to albums or singles? Do you even think of music in those terms?
- When you listen to the radio, how would you describe the DJs? Are they like Freed, Donahue, or something completely different?
- In what ways do you think current formats of music releases and radio reflect the world you live in right now?
Have your students interview a parent about how they consumed music in their youth. Have students write a short essay that addresses some or all of the following questions. You may also wish to add region-specific questions to this list. Have students share their essays with the class.
- How did you discover new music when you were my age?
- Did you buy music? If so, on what format did you buy it? Did you buy singles? Did you buy LPs?
- How did you play your music back? Did you have a personal listening device?
- Did you listen alone, or with friends?
- Did you usually listen through speakers or headphones? If you had both, when and why did you use each?
- Did you listen to the radio? If so, do you remember your favorite channels? Were they AM or FM? Do you remember any of the DJs? What do you remember about the DJs? What kind of music did your favorite radio stations play?
- Did you listen in headphones ever? Did any of your friends use headphones?
© 2016 TeachRock
New Jersey State Standards
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Reading
- NJSLSA.R7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Writing
- NJSLSA.W1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- NJSLSA.W9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Speaking and Listening
- NJSLSA.SL2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- NJSLSA.SL3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Language
- NJSLSA.L6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
New York State Standards
New York State Next Generation English Language Arts Learning Standards
Reading Anchor Standards
- Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats.
Writing Anchor Standards
- Text Types and Purposes
- Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Standard 5: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Speaking and Listening
- Comprehension and Collaboration
- Standard 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats (including visual, quantitative, and oral).
- Standard 3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
- Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
- Standard 6: Acquire and accurately use general academic and content-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; demonstrate independence in gathering and applying vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
NYS Next Generation 6-12 Literacy Standards in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Literacy 6-12 Anchor Standards for Reading
- Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including across multiple texts.
Literacy 6-12 Anchor Standards for Writing
- Text Types and Purposes
- Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Research to Build and Present Knowledge
- Standard 7: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Texas State Standards
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for ELA & Reading
- Make inference about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts.
- Make intertextual links among and across texts, including other media (e.g. film, play, music) and provide textual evidence.
- Make complex inference about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies
- Culture: The student understands the relationship that exists between the arts and the societies in which they are produced. The student expects to:
- Explain the relationships that exist between societies and their architecture, art, music, and literature.
- Relate ways in which contemporary expressions of culture have been influenced by the past.
- Describe ways in which contemporary issues influence creative expression.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine and Performing Arts
- Historical and cultural relevance: The student relates music to history, culture, and the world. The student is expected to: Identify relationships of concepts to other academic disciplines such as the relations between music and mathematics, literature, history, and the sciences.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Music
- (5) Historical and cultural relevance. The student relates music to history, culture, and the world. The student is expected to:
- (A) compare and contrast music by genre, style, culture, and historical period;
- (B) define uses of music in societies and cultures;
- (C) identify and explore the relationships between music and other academic disciplines;
- (E) identify and explore the impact of technologies, ethical issues, and economic factors on music, musicians, and performances.
Common Core State Standards
College and Career Readiness Reading Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 for Literature and Informational Text
- Reading 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
College and Career Readiness Writing Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects
- Writing 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Writing 9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening for Grades 6-12
- Speaking and Listening 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- Speaking and Listening 3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language for Grades 6-12
- Language 6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
Social Studies – National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)
- Theme 1: Culture
- Theme 2: Time, Continuity, and Change
- Theme 5: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
- Theme 7: Production, Distribution and Consumption
- Theme 8: Science, Technology and Society
National Standards for Music Education
Core Music Standard: Responding
- Analyze: Analyze how the structure and context of varied musical works inform the response.
- Interpret: Support interpretations of musical works that reflect creators’ and/or performers’ expressive intent.
- Evaluate: Support evaluations of musical works and performances based on analysis, interpretation, and established criteria.
Core Music Standard: Connecting
- Connecting 11: Relate musical ideas and works to varied contexts and daily life to deepen understanding.
National Core Arts Standards
- Anchor Standard 7: Perceive and analyze artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 8: Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 10: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.
- Anchor Standards 11: Relate artistic ideas and work with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
Career Technical Education Standards (California Model) – Arts, Media and Entertainment Pathway Standards
Design, Visual and Media Arts (A)
- A1.0 Demonstrate ability to reorganize and integrate visual art elements across digital media and design applications.
A1.1 View and respond to a variety of industry-related artistic products integrating industry appropriate vocabulary.
A1.4 Select industry-specific works and analyze the intent of the work and the appropriate use of media.
A1.5 Research and analyze the work of an artist or designer and how the artist’s distinctive style contributes to their industry production.
A1.9 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work. ia, and Entertainment |
A3.0 Analyze and assess the impact of history and culture on the development of professional arts and media products.
A3.1 Identify and describe the role and influence of new technologies on contemporary arts industry.
A3.2 Describe how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence and are reflected in a variety of artistic products.
A3.3 Identify contemporary styles and discuss the diverse social, economic, and political developments reflected in art work in an industry setting.
A4.0 Analyze, assess, and identify effectiveness of artistic products based on elements of art, the principles of design, and professional industry standards.
A4.2 Deconstruct how beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence commercial media (traditional and electronic).
A4.3 Analyze the aesthetic value of a specific commercial work of art and defend that analysis from an industry perspective.
A4.5 Analyze and articulate how society influences the interpretation and effectiveness of an artistic product.
A5.0 Identify essential industry competencies, explore commercial applications and develop a career specific personal plan.
A5.1 Compare and contrast the ways in which different artistic media (television, newspapers, magazines, and electronic media) cover the same commercial content.
A5.2 Explore the role of art and design across various industry sectors and content areas.
A5.4 Predict how changes in technology might change the role and function of the visual arts in the workplace.
A5.7 Synthesize traditional art work and new technologies to design an artistic product to be used by a specific industry.
A8.0 Understand the key technical and technological requirements applicable to various segments of the Media and Design Arts Pathway.
A8.1 Understand the component steps and skills required to design, edit, and produce a production for audio, video, electronic, or printed presentation.
A8.3 Know the features and uses of current and emerging technology related to computing (e.g., optical character recognition, sound processing, cable TV, cellular phones).
A8.7 Evaluate how advanced and emerging technologies (e.g., virtual environment or voice recognition software) affect or improve media and design arts products or productions.
Performing Arts (B)
- B2.0 Read, listen to, deconstruct, and analyze peer and professional music using the elements and terminology of music.
B2.5 Analyze and describe significant musical events perceived and remembered in a given industry generated example.
B2.6 Analyze and describe the use of musical elements in a given professional work that makes it unique, interesting, and expressive.
B2.7 Demonstrate the different uses of form, both past and present, in a varied repertoire of music in commercial settings from diverse genres, styles, and professional applications.
B7.0 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of multiple industry performance products from a discipline-specific perspective.
B7.1 Identify and compare how film, theater, television, and electronic media productions influence values and behaviors.
B7.3 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the musician in the professional setting.
B7.4 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the actor and performance artist in the professional setting.
B8.0 Deconstruct the aesthetic values that drive professional performance and the artistic elements necessary for industry production.
B8.1 Critique discipline-specific professional works using the language and terminology specific to the discipline.
B8.2 Use selected criteria to compare, contrast, and assess various professional performance forms.
B8.3 Analyze the aesthetic principles that apply in a professional work designed for live performance, film, video, or live broadcast.
B8.4 Use complex evaluation criteria and terminology to compare and contrast a variety of genres of professional performance products.