How is the re-use and re-purposing of existing music at the heart of the Hip Hop recording experience?
In many ways Hip Hop is quintessentially American music. It was first created in the Bronx, NY, a borough of New York City that at the time was economically depressed, dangerous and mostly forsaken by the local government. The pioneers of Hip Hop, young people of color living in struggling communities and limited in their opportunities, embraced modern music technologies (first turntables, then drum machines and later samplers) but used them creatively, often in ways their manufacturers never intended. Indeed, the origin story of Hip Hop is one of opening doors that seemed tightly shut.
To many listeners, the first commercial rap releases were surprising, something that seemed new, even unexpected. Many of the early rappers who performed at the block parties that spawned the genre had not themselves conceived of Hip Hop as something one could record and sell. For instance, in Soundbreaking Episode 6 Public Enemy’s Chuck D recalls that before the Sugar Hill Gang’s breakthrough release, “we couldn’t even imagine a rap record.” However, as radical as it sounded to the average American listener in 1980, Hip Hop had deep connections to African-American and Afro-Caribbean music traditions in its performance style and in its use of turntables and prerecorded material as the primary “instrument” in the band.
In this lesson students explore the creative concepts and technological practices on which Hip Hop music was constructed, investigating what it means to “sample” from another style, who has used sampling and how. Then, students experience the technology first hand using the Soundbreaking Sampler TechTool. Students will follow patterns of Caribbean immigration and the musical practices that came to New York City as a result of those patterns, finally considering the ways in which Hip Hop reflects them. Moving forward to the late 1980s and early 90s, what some consider Hip Hop’s “Golden Age,” this lesson explores how sampling might demonstrate a powerful creative expression of influence or even a social or political statement. Finally, this lesson encourages students to consider the conceptual hurdle Hip Hop asked listeners to make by presenting new music made from old sounds.
Upon completion of this lesson, students will:
- Know (knowledge):
- That as a concept, “sampling” can take different forms and has a long history
- How early Hip Hop reflected the cultural influence of Caribbean immigration to the Bronx in New York City
- How the recording “Rapper’s Delight” took a musical movement associated with live events and parties and turned it into a recorded form of music
- How changes in technology expanded the range and use of sampled music
- How during the so-called “Golden Age” of Hip Hop sampling evolved from the practice of isolating beats for a rhythm track to the layering of sounds to create sonic collage
- How the evolution of Hip Hop has been integrally connected to the evolution of sampling
- Be able to (skills):
- Make connections between artistic movements and the social and economic conditions from which they emerge
- Evaluate the cultural influence of immigrant communities on the dominant culture
- Integrate information from texts and videos to make thematic connections and create deeper understandings
- Make connections between popular music and historical events
- Evaluate the effects of technology on history and culture
- Make connections between the history of sampling and their own musical experiences
- Play the following two clips from PBS Soundbreaking:
- Ask students:
- What is the source of the music in these two examples? (Students might observe that Santana is playing instruments on stage, while Public Enemy is rapping over pre-recorded music provided by the DJ without instruments.)
- How do you think Santana composes their music? How do you think they record it in the studio? (Students might answer that Santana composes with instruments such as guitar and piano, and uses these instruments to record in the studio.)
- How do you think Public Enemy composes music? What do you think they do in the recording studio? (Students may not be equipped to articulate what Public Enemy does yet. Inform your students that Public Enemy’s music is created by layering “samples” from other recordings in a form of sonic collage. Overall, help students recognize that after years of musicians with instruments on stage, some groups are performing with only various forms of technology on stage.)
- Distribute Handout 1: Glossary of Terms and direct your students to the glossary. Have them read the various definitions of sampling as a musical practice out loud to the class. Now play Clip 3, Soundbreaking – Sampling as a Natural Human Practice. Ask your students:
- In what sense do the people interviewed here suggest that all music draws on a form of sampling? (Encourage students to interpret the artists’ statements in the clip; they suggest that musicians have created their own music from pre-existing music “since the beginning of time.”)
- Do you think it is possible to make music that has no influences and sounds like nothing that has ever existed before? (Encourage students to articulate their response in detail, whether they say “no” or “yes.” This should encourage a lively class discussion about ideas of “originality” and tradition.)
- Can you think of any other professions in which one must learn a trade and then develop it? How do these professions use a form of sampling to transfer knowledge? (Students might suggest a variety of careers in which learning and to some extent mastering what is already known is required before they can expand upon previous knowledge.)
- In what ways is it suggested that Led Zeppelin “sampled” from blues music? (Students should recall that they borrow guitar riffs and lyrics.)
- Tell your students that just as Led Zeppelin interpreted American blues music in a manner common to their time and place, early Hip Hop musicians also reconfigured the music around them for their needs. Inform your students that the earliest Hip Hop dates to the late 1970s and ask:
- Where do you think Hip Hop music came from? (Students may suggest major urban areas, but if they’re not sure, tell them it came from New York City and, unlike most forms of music, Hip Hop’s origins are pinpointed to a specific address, 1520 Sedgwick Avenue in the Borough of The Bronx.)
- The Bronx is part of New York City and is located north of Manhattan, above Washington Heights and Harlem. What do you think the racial demographic of its population was in the 1970s? (Students might suggest that The Bronx was populated primarily by African-Americans and Hispanics during this period.)
- Return the class’s attention to Handout 2: Map on Jamaican Immigration to New York City in the 1970’s. Inform your students that New York City was a destination hundreds of thousands of Jamaican immigrants in the 1960s and 1970s. Have your students read the definitions of “soundsystem,” “toasting,” “dub” and “break” in the glossary and then show the Clip 4, Soundbreaking – The Bronx in the 1970s. Ask your students:
- How did DJ Kool Herc’s block parties demonstrate a connection to his Jamaican heritage? (Students might connect the outdoor “soundsystem” and the use of prerecorded music rather than a band. They might also connect the idea of a person who chooses and plays records, in this case, ”Kool Herc,” as the featured personality of an event.)
- Distribute Handout 3: Sound Systems: From Jamaica to the Bronx. Have your students compare the photos of a Jamaican sound system and Kool Herc’s sound system. Now have them compare both to the photo of Diana Ross in the DJ booth at Studio 54, a popular disco venue that operated during the same time period 9 miles south in Midtown Manhattan.
- Which photos are most alike?
- How is the Studio 54 booth different from both the Jamaican and Kool Herc DJ rigs? (Students might mention that Studio 54 is a permanent structure, and that the DJ booth is inside, while Herc and the Jamaican setup are mobile and improvised, using folding tables, etc.)
- Returning to discussion of the previous clip, ask your students:
- How do you think the “breaks” pioneered by DJ Kool Herc relate to the dub reggae we see being remixed in this clip? Even if it does not sound the same, do you notice any conceptual similarities? (Students might observe that both use preexisting recordings to create new “live” music. A more sophisticated discussion might lead to the idea that both take music that would typically be conceived of as “finished,” and reconfigure it as a blank canvas on which someone creates something new.)
- Play Clip 5, Soundbreaking – Chuck D on Imagining a Rap Record. Inform your students that though Chuck D became one of the most celebrated rappers in Hip Hop history, he states here that at one point he could not conceive of anyone recording a rap record. Ask your students:
- Why do you think the idea of a rap record was inconceivable to Chuck D and others in the late 1970s?
- How do you think people like Chuck D did conceive of Hip Hop at this time? (Students might suggest that Chuck D thought of Hip Hop as a live event, a party at which DJs played records and MCs rapped.)
- Play Clip 6, Soundbreaking – “Rapper’s Delight”, ask your students:
- In what sense is the musical backing to “Rapper’s Delight” a “sample” of Chic’s “Good Times”? (Students should recall that the bass line and drum beat from “Good Times” are the same, but replayed by different musicians in “Rapper’s Delight”.)
- Why do you think Sylvia Robinson had the Sugar Hill Records house band play “Good Times” as a background for these three rappers? (Students might suggest that it was good choice because the song was already popular and familiar to audiences, so it would serve as an easy transition for listeners.)
- Why do you think Chuck D refers to “Rapper’s Delight” as “The Big Bang moment” for Hip Hop? How does this contrast with his earlier statement that he could not conceive of a rap album? (Students should recall that “Rapper’s Delight” was the first successful rap recording and the first heard by audiences outside of the world of Hip Hop block parties. Encourage your students to consider also that through this recording, Hip Hop transitions from being a place and activity to a type of music that can be recorded, bought and sold, like other genres of music.)
- Play Clip 7, Soundbreaking – The Sampler and its Uses. Ask your students:
- What did producers like the Wu-Tang Clan’s RZA and Marley Marl use samplers to do? (Students might offer a variety of answers, such as using them to create samples of whole drum beats, individual drum sounds, e.g. snare drum or bass drum hits, voices and anything else interesting, sequencing them into longer musical pieces.)
- Samplers and drum machines replaced live bands on Hip Hop recordings almost completely. What do you think made samplers so appealing to Hip Hop producers? (Students might mention that samplers allowed producers to make new music using small sections of preexisting recordings. Encourage students to connect the use of samplers as a means to achieve the feeling of the original Hip Hop block party and the use of “breaks.” )
- Distribute Handout 4: Public Enemy Listening Chart and go over the prompts for note taking with your students. Play Clip 8, Soundbreaking – Public Enemy and Sampling as a Cultural Concept. Ask your students:
- How did you describe the sound and mood of Public Enemy?
- In what ways would you differentiate Hank Shocklee and Public Enemy’s use of samples from the sound of “Rapper’s Delight” we heard in a previous clip? (Students might answer that Chuck D said P.E. wanted to “destroy predictability” by creating a sonic collage that combined the expected drum beat with layers of musical and nonmusical sounds as well as spoken word, excerpts of speeches, etc. In contrast, they might recall that “Rapper’s Delight” is a “sample” of song still played by a band.)
- How would you describe the message of the Public Enemy music you just heard?
- Do you think that the sound, in particular the way samples are used, reinforces the message in Public Enemy’s music? If so, how?
- Break students into small groups (the number of groups should be based on access to the devices necessary to use this TechTool). Have each group open the Soundbreaking Sampler TechTool. Distribute Handout 5 – Soundbreaking Sampling TechTool and have the groups read the instructions and follow the prompts. Once the groups have finished, each group should share its loop with the class.
Having now learned about sampling in several forms, ask your students to consider Jason King’s statement in the Clip 8 that “sampling connects the past with the present and the future.” Ask your students:
- What do you think King means with this statement? How can a recorded clip of music “connect the past with the present and the future”?
- Do you think that as a practice “sampling” sounds from others, whether on an instrument or with a machine, has always been a part of music?
- Having now experimented with sampling yourself, do you think you could make “new” music using pre-recorded music?
- Conduct a literal study of the idea of past-present-future connection by researching the specific use of samples in music. Have your students research the making of Public Enemy’s “Fight the Power.” Find out what samples they used in the track, and then research the albums from which those samples were taken. (Note to teacher: all of this information is a Google search away, the website “whosampled” is a good resource. If the teacher chooses, the student could do this prompt with any song that uses sampling.)
- Does this collection of samples support King’s assertion?
- Do you think the samples were chosen with any sense of cultural connectivity in mind, or were they picked on the basis of sound alone?
- Sampling allows an artist to use bits and pieces of existing songs or other sounds to create a new piece of music. In this way, like the “melting pot,” sampling is a metaphor for American culture. Describe another example of this phenomenon, whether in terms of food, music, language, etc. In what ways is your example similar to or divergent from sampling?
© 2016 TeachRock
New Jersey State Standards
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Reading
- NJSLSA.R7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Writing
- NJSLSA.W1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- NJSLSA.W9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Speaking and Listening
- NJSLSA.SL2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Language
- NJSLSA.L6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
New York State Standards
New York State Next Generation English Language Arts Learning Standards Reading Anchor Standards
- Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats.
Writing Anchor Standards
- Text Types and Purposes
- Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Standard 5: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Speaking and Listening
- Comprehension and Collaboration
- Standard 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats (including visual, quantitative, and oral).
- Standard 3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
- Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
- Standard 6: Acquire and accurately use general academic and content-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; demonstrate independence in gathering and applying vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
NYS Next Generation 6-12 Literacy Standards in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Literacy 6-12 Anchor Standards for Reading
- Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
- Standard 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including across multiple texts.
Literacy 6-12 Anchor Standards for Writing
- Text Types and Purposes
- Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Research to Build and Present Knowledge
- Standard 7: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
Texas State Standards
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for ELA & Reading
- Make inference about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts.
- Make intertextual links among and across texts, including other media (e.g. film, play, music) and provide textual evidence.
- Make complex inference about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies
- Culture: The student understands the relationship that exists between the arts and the societies in which they are produced. The student expects to:
- Explain the relationships that exist between societies and their architecture, art, music, and literature.
- Relate ways in which contemporary expressions of culture have been influenced by the past.
- Describe ways in which contemporary issues influence creative expression.
- Economics: The student understands why various sections of the United State develop different patterns of economic activity. The student is expected to:
- Explain the reasons for the increase in factories and urbanization.
- Analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times in U.S. History.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine and Performing Arts
- Historical and cultural relevance: The student relates music to history, culture, and the world. The student is expected to: Identify relationships of concepts to other academic disciplines such as the relations between music and mathematics, literature, history, and the sciences.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Music
- (5) Historical and cultural relevance. The student relates music to history, culture, and the world. The student is expected to:
- (A) compare and contrast music by genre, style, culture, and historical period;
- (B) define uses of music in societies and cultures;
- (C) identify and explore the relationships between music and other academic disciplines;
- (E) identify and explore the impact of technologies, ethical issues, and economic factors on music, musicians, and performances.
Common Core State Standards
College and Career Readiness Reading Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 for Literature and Informational Text
- Reading 7: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
College and Career Readiness Writing Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects
- Writing 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Writing 9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening for Grades 6-12
- Speaking and Listening 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- Speaking and Listening 3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language for Grades 6-12
- Language 6: Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
Social Studies – National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)
- Theme 1: Culture
- Theme 2: Time, Continuity, and Change
- Theme 5: Individuals, Groups, and Institutions
- Theme 7: Production, Distribution and Consumption
- Theme 8: Science, Technology and Society
National Standards for Music Education
Core Music Standard: Responding
- Analyze: Analyze how the structure and context of varied musical works inform the response.
- Interpret: Support interpretations of musical works that reflect creators’ and/or performers’ expressive intent.
- Evaluate: Support evaluations of musical works and performances based on analysis, interpretation, and established criteria.
Core Music Standard: Connecting
- Connecting 11: Relate musical ideas and works to varied contexts and daily life to deepen understanding.
National Core Arts Standards
- Anchor Standard 7: Perceive and analyze artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 8: Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 10: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.
- Anchor Standards 11: Relate artistic ideas and work with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
Career Technical Education Standards (California Model) – Arts, Media and Entertainment Pathway Standards
Design, Visual and Media Arts (A)
- A1.0 Demonstrate ability to reorganize and integrate visual art elements across digital media and design applications.
A1.1 View and respond to a variety of industry-related artistic products integrating industry appropriate vocabulary.
A1.3 Describe the use of the elements of art to express mood in digital or traditional art work found in the commercial environment.
A1.4 Select industry-specific works and analyze the intent of the work and the appropriate use of media.
A1.5 Research and analyze the work of an artist or designer and how the artist’s distinctive style contributes to their industry production.
A1.9 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work. ia, and Entertainment |
A2.0 Apply artistic skills and processes to solve a variety of industry-relevant problems in a variety of traditional and electronic media.
A2.2 Demonstrate personal style and advanced proficiency in communicating an idea, theme, or emotion in an industry-relevant artistic product.
A3.0 Analyze and assess the impact of history and culture on the development of professional arts and media products.
A3.1 Identify and describe the role and influence of new technologies on contemporary arts industry.
A3.2 Describe how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence and are reflected in a variety of artistic products.
A3.3 Identify contemporary styles and discuss the diverse social, economic, and political developments reflected in art work in an industry setting.
A4.0 Analyze, assess, and identify effectiveness of artistic products based on elements of art, the principles of design, and professional industry standards.
A4.2 Deconstruct how beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence commercial media (traditional and electronic).
A4.3 Analyze the aesthetic value of a specific commercial work of art and defend that analysis from an industry perspective.
A4.4 Analyze the relationship between the artist, artistic product and audience in both an existing and self-generated project.
A4.5 Analyze and articulate how society influences the interpretation and effectiveness of an artistic product.
A5.0 Identify essential industry competencies, explore commercial applications and develop a career specific personal plan.
A5.1 Compare and contrast the ways in which different artistic media (television, newspapers, magazines, and electronic media) cover the same commercial content.
A5.2 Explore the role of art and design across various industry sectors and content areas.
A5.3 Deconstruct works of art, identifying psychological content found in the symbols and images and their relationship to industry and society.
A5.4 Predict how changes in technology might change the role and function of the visual arts in the workplace.
A5.7 Synthesize traditional art work and new technologies to design an artistic product to be used by a specific industry.
A8.0 Understand the key technical and technological requirements applicable to various segments of the Media and Design Arts Pathway.
A8.1 Understand the component steps and skills required to design, edit, and produce a production for audio, video, electronic, or printed presentation.
A8.3 Know the features and uses of current and emerging technology related to computing (e.g., optical character recognition, sound processing, cable TV, cellular phones).
A8.7 Evaluate how advanced and emerging technologies (e.g., virtual environment or voice recognition software) affect or improve media and design arts products or productions.
Performing Arts (B)
- B2.0 Read, listen to, deconstruct, and analyze peer and professional music using the elements and terminology of music.
B2.2 Describe how the elements of music are used.
B2.5 Analyze and describe significant musical events perceived and remembered in a given industry generated example.
B2.6 Analyze and describe the use of musical elements in a given professional work that makes it unique, interesting, and expressive.
B2.7 Demonstrate the different uses of form, both past and present, in a varied repertoire of music in commercial settings from diverse genres, styles, and professional applications.
B5.0 Apply vocal and/or instrumental skill and knowledge to perform a varied repertoire of music appropriate to music industry application.
B5.4 Employ a variety of music technology to record, integrate, or modify a live or recorded performance to produce a new artistic product.
B7.0 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of multiple industry performance products from a discipline-specific perspective.
B7.1 Identify and compare how film, theater, television, and electronic media productions influence values and behaviors.
B7.3 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the musician in the professional setting.
B7.4 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the actor and performance artist in the professional setting.
B8.0 Deconstruct the aesthetic values that drive professional performance and the artistic elements necessary for industry production.
B8.1 Critique discipline-specific professional works using the language and terminology specific to the discipline.
B8.2 Use selected criteria to compare, contrast, and assess various professional performance forms.
B8.3 Analyze the aesthetic principles that apply in a professional work designed for live performance, film, video, or live broadcast.
B8.4 Use complex evaluation criteria and terminology to compare and contrast a variety of genres of professional performance products.
Production and Managerial Arts (C)
- C3.0 Analyze and differentiate the function of the various members of a production team.
C3.1 Identify the skills and competencies of the various members of a production team including producer, production manager, director, assistant director, stage manager, production designer(s), post production, etc.