What makes a work of art “original,” and how does the use of “sampling” technology in Hip Hop challenge perceptions of “originality”?
The act of sampling, or using a piece of an existing recording as part of a new recording, has been essential to Hip Hop musicians and producers since the genre’s inception in the 1970s. First in the Bronx, and soon after in other boroughs of New York City, DJs used turntables to spin records, combine songs, and scratch rhythms entertaining audiences in public spaces as well as dance clubs. Pioneering DJs such as DJ Kool Herc and Grandmaster Flash noticed that, among other things, dancers preferred the instrumental “breaks”–sections that usually featured just drums and bass–in certain records, so they developed techniques using two turntables to extend these sections. These “breaks” also provided the background music for early rappers, the MCs. In 1979, the Sugarhill Gang’s “Rapper’s Delight” became the first popular song to contain rapping and, in some form, sampling. Hired by veteran musician and pioneering rap producer Sylvia Robinson, the Sugar Hill Records house band performed a “break” live by extending a short section of Chic’s “Good Times” as an instrumental backdrop for the Sugarhill Gang’s raps. Over the early 1980s, as Hip Hop became a fixture in American popular music, producers made use of live bands but, more often, began to incorporate the emerging digital technology of drum machines and samplers.
By the mid-1980s, drum machines and digital keyboards were embraced wholeheartedly by Hip Hop producers, for whom building tracks with these devices largely replaced recording with live bands. Early digital samplers were large, difficult to use and prohibitively expensive to most Hip Hop producers. New, more affordable, smaller samplers arrived in 1986-7 and were embraced by producers, quickly leading to a conceptual shift in what it meant to “play a break.” Machines such as the E-mu SP-12 allowed users to “sample” up to 1.2 seconds of existing recordings and then play them back in new ways, often “looping” those short segments into something longer. Though samplers were introduced initially as a means to record short sounds for digital keyboards, Hip Hop producers discovered they were useful for something different: snatching bits of existing records–drum beats, vocal lines, spoken words–to be reconfigured in sonic collages. Sampling became the centerpiece of Hip Hop production–albums such as Public Enemy’s It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back and The Beastie Boys Paul’s Boutique are layered with dozens of samples–and a major facet of what many consider the genre’s “Golden Age” in the late 80s and early 90s. Much as they had done with turntables a decade earlier, Hip Hop creators turned a technology on its head, using it creatively in a way its makers never fully intended.
When Hip Hop was something mostly confined to the nation’s inner cities and not the commercial force it would become, the practice of sampling bits and pieces of music from copyrighted recordings was largely ignored by record labels and their legal teams. But as rap recordings and the broader culture of Hip Hop gained popularity and began to generate sizable revenue in the U.S., inevitably the questions of rights and remuneration arose. In 1989 members of The Turtles filed suit against rap group De La Soul and their Tommy Boy record label for the use of several seconds of the 1969 recording “You Showed Me.” The case, which was settled out of court but resulted in a $1.7 million dollar payout for The Turtles, established sampling as big business and led many people to ask the question: “What makes something original”? To some ears, De La Soul had created something altogether new with the Turtles’ recording. Others felt differently.
As it relates to art and music, “originality” has come to be viewed by many as a slippery concept. There are those who argue that no artist creates in a vacuum; musicians, writers and painters have always been influenced by other artists, drawing on their work as source material. Some have argued that musicians like Led Zeppelin were “stealing” because of their appropriation of American Blues riffs and vocal themes. And again, though De La Soul used a digital copy of a section of The Turtles’ “You Show Me” in their recording “Transmitting Live From Mars,” many would argue that The Turtles’ recording was transformed and thus the De La Soul recording is “original.”
In this lesson, students use examples from visual art as well as rap to enter into a “structured academic controversy” that explores the concept of originality.
Upon completion of this lesson, students will:
- Know (knowledge):
- Key terms and concepts of U.S. Copyright Law
- What “sampling” is as both a musical and technological practice
- How people assimilate and disseminate cultural information
- About visual artist Richard Price
- About the concept of appropriation
- About the social history of Bronx, NY at the time of the creation of Hip Hop
- Be able to (skills):
- Make connections between artistic movements and the social and economic conditions from which they emerge
- Consider the complexities and ambiguities of controversial issues
- Identify and consider both sides of a debated issue
- Integrate information from texts and videos to make thematic connections and create deeper understandings
- Make connections between the history of sampling and their own musical experiences
- Question and analyze concepts of originality in music and other art forms
- Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions on topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
- Ask Students:
- Have you ever heard of digital sampling? What is it?
- Who are some of your favorite contemporary musicians? Do you think they use sampling at all?
- Do you think any of your current favorite artists are influenced by any other artists? If so, can you hear who they are influenced by?
- Play Clip 1, Soundbreaking – Sampling as Natural Human Practice and ask Students:
- In what ways was the idea of a “sample” explained in this clip?
- Esperanza Spalding suggests that musicians assimilate information and then disseminate it again, but it comes out as “their bag.” What do you think Spalding means by this?
- Do you “assimilate information or inspiration” in your life? How?
- In what ways might you then “disseminate” that information or inspiration again?
- This lesson utilizes a “structured academic controversy” format in which students break into two groups, each of which represent one side of a courtroom-style hearing. After breaking your class into groups, distribute Handout 1: Pre-Trial Research for All Groups and have the groups follow the prompt on the sheet.
- Now distribute Handout 2: Case A, The Marlboro Man and Richard Prince. Explain to your students that Richard Prince is an artist known for “appropriation,” the act of using outside source material to create one’s own art works. This handout includes a Marlboro cigarette advertisement and the artwork Prince made from it. Follow the prompts on Handout 2 and have students observe the visual examples, gather their pre-trial research using Handout 1, and then proceed with the three phases of trial and discussion as outlined in the “Courtroom” section of Handout 2.
- Now explain to students that in the 1980s, the digital “sampler” allowed musicians to appropriate music by chopping out sections of recorded tracks with which they could create new recordings. Play Clip 2, Soundbreaking – “Can It Be All So Simple” by the Wu-Tang Clan. Distribute Handout 3: Case B, The Wu-Tang Clan, “Can It Be All So Simple” and have students follow the prompts from Handout 1 to gather their pre-trial research. Then proceed for a second time with the three phases of trial and discussion as outlined on Handout 3.
Show Clip 3, Soundbreaking – The Bronx in the 1970s and have your students take notes, focusing on the origins of rap and the people who created it. Ask your students:
- In what ways do you think that rap might have been a product of the assimilation and dissemination of various cultural practices, even before sampling evolved as a technology?
- Is there anything completely “original” in our lives?
- Are there other aspects of life in which you see a form of “sampling”? For instance, consider the idea of sampling as it could apply to the way you dress or speak, or how movies and television shows get made?
- Sampling can take bits and pieces of existing songs (or other sounds) and recombine them to create a new piece of music. In this way, sampling is a metaphor for a key aspect of American culture that is repeated throughout our nation’s history: the combining of elements from different cultures to create something new. Describe another example of this phenomenon, whether in terms of food, music, language, etc. How is your example similar to or divergent from sampling?
- Ask students to select a song they personally enjoy listening to with a recognizable sample and, if possible, do a little research to identify the origin of the sample(s). (If they can’t identify the source(s) on their own, the website whosampled.com is helpful for this research). Then have them respond to the following prompts in writing:
- What is the name of the song you selected?
- What is the song (or other medium) that is sampled ?
- How does the sample contribute to the song—in terms of mood, or rhythm, or style, etc.? How might the song sound or feel different without this sample?
- Why do you think the song’s producer(s) selected that particular sample?
If students have trouble selecting a song on their own, you can suggest they listen to and research any of the following songs:
- “Famous” by Kanye West feat. Rianna and Swizz Beatz. (Samples Nina Simone’s “Do What You Gotta Do” and other songs.)
- “Hold Up” by Beyoncé. (Samples Andy Williams’ “Can’t Get Used to Losing You” and other songs.)
“One Dance–Crazy Cousins Remix” by Drake, feat. Wiz Kid and Kyla. (Samples “Do You Mind” by DJ Paleface feat. Kyla)
For further exploration of sampling, open the Soundbreaking Sampler TechTool. Follow the prompts from Handout 5 of Sampling: The Foundation of Hip Hop, experimenting with sampling pieces of music and then sequencing them in time.
© 2016 TeachRock
New Jersey State Standards
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Reading
- NJSLSA.R1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logistical inferences and relevant connections from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
- NJSLSA.R2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key and supporting details.
- NJSLSRA.R4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Writing
- NJSLSA.W1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- NJSLSA.W2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
- NJSLSA.W3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Speaking and Listening
- NJSLSA.SL1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
- NJSLSA.SL2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- NJSLSA.SL3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
New Jersey State Learning Standards for English Language Arts: Language
- NJSLSA.L1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- NJSLSA.L2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
- NJSLSA.L4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and ,multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
New York State Standards
New York State Next Generation English Language Arts Learning Standards
Reading Anchor Standards
- Key Ideas and Details
- Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly/implicitly and make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
- Standard 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
- Craft and Structure
- Standard 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Writing Anchor Standards
- Text Types and Purposes
- Standard 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Standard 2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
- Standard 3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
Speaking and Listening
- Comprehension and Collaboration
- Standard 1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners; express ideas clearly and persuasively, and build on those of others.
- Standard 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats (including visual, quantitative, and oral).
- Standard 3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
- Conventions of Academic English/Language for Learning
- Standard 1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of academic English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- Standard 2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of academic English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
Knowledge of Language
- Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
- Standard 4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
Texas State Standards
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for ELA & Reading
- Make inference about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
- Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts.
- Make intertextual links among and across texts, including other media (e.g. film, play, music) and provide textual evidence.
- Make complex inference about text and use textual evidence to support understanding.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies
- Culture: The student understands the relationship that exists between the arts and the societies in which they are produced. The student expects to:
- Explain the relationships that exist between societies and their architecture, art, music, and literature.
- Relate ways in which contemporary expressions of culture have been influenced by the past.
- Describe ways in which contemporary issues influence creative expression.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine and Performing Arts
- Historical and cultural relevance: The student relates music to history, culture, and the world. The student is expected to:
- Identify relationships of concepts to other academic disciplines such as the relations between music and mathematics, literature, history, and the sciences.
Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Music
- (5) Historical and cultural relevance. The student relates music to history, culture, and the world. The student is expected to:
- (A) compare and contrast music by genre, style, culture, and historical period;
- (B) define uses of music in societies and cultures;
- (C) identify and explore the relationships between music and other academic disciplines;
- (E) identify and explore the impact of technologies, ethical issues, and economic factors on music, musicians, and performances.
Common Core State Standards
College and Career Readiness Reading Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 for English Language Arts
- Reading 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
- Reading 2: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
- Reading 4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
College and Career Readiness Writing Anchor Standards for Grades 6-12 in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects
- Writing 1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
- Writing 2: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
- Writing 3: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening for Grades 6-12
- Speaking and Listening 1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
- Speaking and Listening 2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
- Speaking and Listening 3: Evaluate a speakers point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language for Grades 6-12
- Language 1: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- Language 2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing
- Language 4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
Social Studies – National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS)
- Theme 1: Culture
- Theme 2: Time, Continuity, and Change
- Theme 3: People, Places, and Environments
- Theme 4: Individual, Development and Identity
- Theme 7: Production, Distribution, and Consumption
- Theme 8: Science, Technology, and Society
National Standards for Music Education
Core Music Standard: Responding
Analyze: Analyze how the structure and context of varied musical works inform the response.
Enduring Understanding: Response to music is informed by analyzing context (social, cultural, and historical) and how
Essential Question: How does understanding the structure and context of music inform a response?
Identify and compare the context of music from a variety of genres, cultures, and historical periods. [MU:Re7.2.7b]
Interpret: Support interpretations of musical works that reflect creators’/performers’ expressive intent.
Enduring Understanding: Through their use of elements and structures of music, creators and performers provide clues to their expressive intent.
Describe a personal interpretation of contrasting works and explain how creators’ and performers’ application of the elements of music and expressive qualities, within genres, cultures, and historical periods, convey expressive intent. [MU:Re8.1.7a]
Core Music Standard: Connecting
Connect #11: Relate musical ideas and works with varied context to deepen understanding.
Enduring Understanding: Understanding connections to varied contexts and daily life enhances musicians’ creating, performing, and responding.
Essential Question: How do the other arts, other disciplines, contexts, and daily life inform creating, performing, and responding to music?
Demonstrate understanding of relationships between music and the other arts, other disciplines, varied contexts, and daily life.
National Core Arts Standards
- Anchor Standard 7: Perceive and analyze artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 8: Interpret intent and meaning in artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 9: Apply criteria to evaluate artistic work.
- Anchor Standard 10: Synthesize and relate knowledge and personal experiences to make art.
- Anchor Standards 11: Relate artistic ideas and work with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding.
Career Technical Education Standards (California Model) – Arts, Media and Entertainment Pathway Standards
Design, Visual and Media Arts (A)
- A1.0 Demonstrate ability to reorganize and integrate visual art elements across digital media and design applications.
A1.1 View and respond to a variety of industry-related artistic products integrating industry appropriate vocabulary.
A1.2 Identify and use the principles of design to discuss, analyze, and create projects and products across multiple industry applications.
A1.3 Describe the use of the elements of art to express mood in digital or traditional art work found in the commercial environment.
A1.4 Select industry-specific works and analyze the intent of the work and the appropriate use of media.
A1.5 Research and analyze the work of an artist or designer and how the artist’s distinctive style contributes to their industry production.
A1.6 Compare and analyze art work done using electronic media with those done with materials traditionally used in the visual arts.
A1.7 Analyze and discuss complex ideas, such as distortion, color theory, arbitrary color, scale, expressive content, and real versus virtual in works of art.
A1.9 Analyze the material used by a given artist and describe how its use influences the meaning of the work. ia, and Entertainment |
A3.0 Analyze and assess the impact of history and culture on the development of professional arts and media products.
A3.1 Identify and describe the role and influence of new technologies on contemporary arts industry.
A3.2 Describe how the issues of time, place, and cultural influence and are reflected in a variety of artistic products.
A3.3 Identify contemporary styles and discuss the diverse social, economic, and political developments reflected in art work in an industry setting.
A3.4 Identify art in international industry and discuss ways in which the work reflects cultural perspective.
A3.5 Analyze similarities and differences of purpose in art created in culturally diverse industry applications.
A4.0 Analyze, assess, and identify effectiveness of artistic products based on elements of art, the principles of design, and professional industry standards.
A4.2 Deconstruct how beliefs, cultural traditions, and current social, economic, and political contexts influence commercial media (traditional and electronic).
A4.3 Analyze the aesthetic value of a specific commercial work of art and defend that analysis from an industry perspective.
A4.5 Analyze and articulate how society influences the interpretation and effectiveness of an artistic product.
A5.0 Identify essential industry competencies, explore commercial applications and develop a career specific personal plan.
A5.1 Compare and contrast the ways in which different artistic media (television, newspapers, magazines, and electronic media) cover the same commercial content.
A5.2 Explore the role of art and design across various industry sectors and content areas.
A5.3 Deconstruct works of art, identifying psychological content found in the symbols and images and their relationship to industry and society.
A5.4 Predict how changes in technology might change the role and function of the visual arts in the workplace.
A5.7 Synthesize traditional art work and new technologies to design an artistic product to be used by a specific industry.
A8.0 Understand the key technical and technological requirements applicable to various segments of the Media and Design Arts Pathway.
A8.7 Evaluate how advanced and emerging technologies (e.g., virtual environment or voice recognition software) affect or improve media and design arts products or productions.
Performing Arts (B)
- B2.0 Read, listen to, deconstruct, and analyze peer and professional music using the elements and terminology of music.
B2.2 Describe how the elements of music are used.
B2.5 Analyze and describe significant musical events perceived and remembered in a given industry generated example.
B2.6 Analyze and describe the use of musical elements in a given professional work that makes it unique, interesting, and expressive.
B2.7 Demonstrate the different uses of form, both past and present, in a varied repertoire of music in commercial settings from diverse genres, styles, and professional applications.
B5.0 Apply vocal and/or instrumental skill and knowledge to perform a varied repertoire of music appropriate to music industry application.
B5.4 Employ a variety of music technology to record, integrate, or modify a live or recorded performance to produce a new artistic product.
B7.0 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of multiple industry performance products from a discipline-specific perspective.
B7.1 Identify and compare how film, theater, television, and electronic media productions influence values and behaviors.
B7.3 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the musician in the professional setting.
B7.4 Analyze the historical and cultural perspective of the actor and performance artist in the professional setting.
B8.0 Deconstruct the aesthetic values that drive professional performance and the artistic elements necessary for industry production.
B8.1 Critique discipline-specific professional works using the language and terminology specific to the discipline.
B8.2 Use selected criteria to compare, contrast, and assess various professional performance forms.
B8.3 Analyze the aesthetic principles that apply in a professional work designed for live performance, film, video, or live broadcast.
B8.4 Use complex evaluation criteria and terminology to compare and contrast a variety of genres of professional performance products.